COMPOSITION OF ESSENTIAL OIL OF THE PINE ORDINARY
© N. V. Chekushkina, T.V. Nevzorov, A.A. Efremov Krasnoyarsk state agricultural university, Mira Ave., 90, Krasnoyarsk, 660049 (Russia)
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The method of hromato-mass-spectrometry has investigated component composition of essential oil of needles of pine ordinary, collected in September. It is shown that the content of monoterpenes makes no more than 50% and the composition of oil changes in process of its allocation: the maintenance of the easily flying decreases, and the maintenance of the hardly flying increases otgonka eventually.
In the Siberian woods coniferous breeds of trees prevail. Among them the most widespread and valuable is the pine. It is the main object of logging. The most productive woods in which the well-known Angarsk pine grows, are located in the basins of Angara and Yenisei. The general reserves of wood in Siberian Federal District are estimated at 30-36 billion cubic meters, operational - at 10-15 billion cubic meters. The main part of stocks is concentrated in Eastern Siberia.
As have shown results of analyses, initial raw materials - air-dry needles of pine ordinary, humidity of raw materials - 4,90%, ash content - 1,89%. The exit of essential oil defined in five parallel experiences has made 1,77±0,06% counting on absolutely dry raw materials. The received essential oil of needles of pine ordinary had density of 0,8772 g/cm3, index of refraction - 1,4790.
Studying of dynamics of release of essential oil has shown that this process can be divided into three time intervals: in the first interval of time almost linear dependence of amount of the emitted oil on time is observed. This interval of time is defined by quantity of initial raw materials and the speed of giving of couple. Under our conditions it made 30-40 min. In the third time interval the infinitesimal increase in amount of oil is observed eventually and it begins under our conditions approximately in 8-10 h. The second time interval is characterized by transitional area when the amount of the emitted oil more with difficulty depends on otgonka time.
For more complete description of process of release of essential oil of pine ordinary collected separate fractions in process of its allocation and analyzed index of refraction and fractional structure. It has appeared that the index of refraction of separate fractions changes in process of release of oil that testifies to change of composition of oil.
The structure of separate fractions of the received essential oil established with use hromato-to mass-spectrometry, the obtained data testify that the main components of oil among monoterpenes are a-pinene, camphene, D3 carene, limonene. Among sequiterpenes the main: karyophyllene, selinen, mu-rolen, kadinen, spatulenol, kadinol and some other. It should be noted that the content of monoterpenes in essential oil of pine ordinary in this case makes less than a half - 49,4%.
The analysis of the separate fractions of essential oil received in dynamics of otgonka has shown that the composition of essential oil of the pine hvy changes in process of otgonka: the maintenance of easy fractions, such as pinene, camphene, carene, limonene decreases otgonka, the content of such hardly volatile compounds over time as germakren, murolen, kadinen, increases otgonka eventually.
Thus, with use of method of hromato-mass-spectrometry the qualitative and quantitative composition of essential oil of needles of pine ordinary, growing in the Emelyanovsky region of Krasnoyarsk Krai is established. Besides, it is established that the component composition of essential oil changes in process of otgonka with increase in amount of hardly volatile compounds of oil otgonka eventually.
Has come to edition on April 21, 2007.
The method of an exhaustive gidroparodistillyation studied process of release of essential oil of a pad of a fir Siberian. The essential oil emitted during 18ch. With an exit of 3,92%, it is presented by 28 components the contents more than 0,1%. The method hromato - mass spectrometry identified all main components of the received oil.
The distillation method with water vapor has studied process of release of essential oil of pad of fir Siberian. The essential oil emitted during 26 h with exit of 5,40% is provided by 30 components with the contents more than 0,1%. The method of hromato-mass-spectrometry has identified all main components of the received oil.
The method of hromato-mass-spectrometry has investigated component composition of essential oil of needles of larch Siberian, collected in September. It is shown that essential oil contains no more than 59% of monoterpenes, and the structure significantly changes its allocations in the conditions of hydrodistillation eventually.