COMPOSITION OF FIR ESSENTIAL OIL OF THE JULY PAD OF THE FIR SIBERIAN
© E.A. Efremov, A.A. Efremov
Siberian federal university, Svobodny Ave., 79, Krasnoyarsk, 660041
The distillation method with water vapor has studied process of release of essential oil of pad of fir Siberian. The essential oil emitted during 26 h with exit of 5,40% is provided by 30 components with the contents more than 0,1%. The method of hromato-mass-spectrometry has identified all main components of the received oil.
Essential oil belongs to the most important class of biologically active agents of wood greens. Essential oils - difficult mix of the terpenic hydrocarbons and their derivatives produced in the conditions of life activity of the plant.
Considering that fact that the most intensive growth of the coniferous happens during the summer period, it is possible to believe that structure, and it is possible, and exit of essential oil can change within year. Really, the data which are available in literature indicate some changes in composition, for example, of monoterpenes seasonally though these dependences are not absolutely correct. It is interesting to note that in some works the exit of essential oil from pad of fir Siberian within 2,5-3,5% is specified, for example, the exit of essential oil has made of wood greens of fir in March 3,38%, in May - 4,55%, in November - 2,58%.
It is obvious that such exit is, most likely, underestimated or due to incomplete allocation from initial raw materials, or due to losses at small initial hinge plate of raw materials (our estimates show that when loading 100 g of fir pad with humidity of 50% of loss of the emitted oil can make to 20-30%).
It is known that process of release of essential oil happens during rather long time, at least within several hours. It is obvious that the most objective data on component structure and physical and chemical characteristics of essential oil will be when all components of oil from initial raw materials are allocated and quantitatively collected in the course of otgonka. It is natural that reduction of time of otgonka of oil will always lead to receiving separate fractions of oil, sometimes noticeable differing both on the structure, and according to the main physical and chemical characteristics.
Studying of dynamics of release of essential oil from wood greens of fir Siberian has shown that this process will drag out in time and it can be divided into three time intervals: in the first interval of time almost linear dependence of amount of the emitted oil on time is observed. Under our conditions it made 100-120 min. In the third time interval the infinitesimal increase in amount of oil is observed eventually, and it begins under our conditions approximately in 8 - 10 h. The second time interval is characterized by transitional area when the amount of the emitted oil more with difficulty depends on otgonka time. Almost full release of essential oil is observed in this case only after 14-16 h continuous otgonka as the increase in time of otgonka at 2-4 h does not lead to additional release of essential oil.
The essential oil received during 16 h from wood greens of fir Siberian has density of 0,9085 g/cm3, index of refraction 1,4701. The oil exit by results of 6 distillation has made 3,21±0,12% in terms of fresh raw materials with average humidity of 40,74%, or 5,40±0,16% in terms of absolutely dry raw materials.
For more complete description of process of release of essential oil collected separate fractions in process of its allocation and analyzed index of refraction, density and fractional structure. It has appeared that the index of refraction and density of separate fractions change in process of release of oil that testifies to change of composition of oil.
By method of hromato-mass-spectrometry it is established that in essential oil of fir Siberian there are not less than 70 components which contents makes more than 0,1% of whole oil.
It is visible that the maintenance of separate components of oil in the received fractions considerably differs, and the maintenance of one in process of otgonka decreases (camphene, baras camphor, bornyl acetate), others - increases (karyophyllene, 4,7-metanoazulen, himakhalen, bizabolen). And the general is that fact that the content of heavier terpenoids, as a rule, increases in process of increase in time of otgonka.
Thus, the main components of pad of fir Siberian, prepared during the summer period in July, are 30 components with the contents more than 0,1% of whole oil.
As a part of components it is found hamazulen with concentration of 0,02%, but considering its intensive dark blue coloring, fir oil can also have blue shade.
The exit of essential oil Siberian makes 3,21±0,12% in terms of fresh raw materials with average humidity of 40,74% of July pad of fir or 5,40±0,16% in terms of absolutely dry raw materials.
Has come to edition on December 26, 2009.
The method of an exhaustive gidroparodistillyation studied process of release of essential oil of a pad of a fir Siberian. The essential oil emitted during 18ch. With an exit of 3,92%, it is presented by 28 components the contents more than 0,1%. The method hromato - mass spectrometry identified all main components of the received oil.
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