COMPONENT COMPOSITION OF ESSENTIAL OIL OF THE WINTER PAD OF THE FIR SIBERIAN
E.A. Efremov, A.A. Efremov
Siberian federal university, Svobodny Ave., 79, Krasnoyarsk
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The method of an exhaustive gidroparodistillyation studied process of release of essential oil of a pad of a fir Siberian. The essential oil emitted during 18ch. With an exit of 3,92%, it is presented by 28 components the contents more than 0,1%. The method hromato - mass spectrometry identified all main components of the received oil.
Compositions of essential oil fir greens during the autumn and summer periods differ a little, and more noticeable distinctions are observed in the content of oil.
Proceeding from it, we assumed that the composition of essential oil during the winter period can differ from the summer and autumn periods, and in this regard we studied structure and some physical and chemical characteristics of essential oil of a fir of the Siberian winter wood greens.
The initial raw materials - a pad of a fir Siberian, were prepared in January. Essential oil was received by method of an exhaustive gidroparodistillyation proceeding from one-time loading of raw materials. The received oil was collected quantitatively in the course of an otgonka, weighed and by that defined its exit.
Research of dynamics of an otgonka of essential oil in the conditions of a gidroparodistillyation showed that full allocation of all components of oil happens similarly summer and autumn pad - within 17-18 hours. The essential oil received by a gidroparodistillyation method has density of 0,9036 g/cm3 and index of refraction 1,4720, the oil exit by results of 6 otgon made 3,92% in terms of absolutely dry raw materials.
In process of release of essential oil there is a change of its component structure. The first fractions contain the increased quantity of the easily boiling terpinoid, such as santen, tritsiklen, camphene, pinenes and some other. The last fractions are rich with sysokokipyashchy components and seskviterpena, such as borneol, bornilatsetat, geranilatsetat, longifolen, kariofillen, gumulen, bizabolena, kadinenta and other.
The main components of essential oil of a winter pad of a fir practically the same, as from a summer pad, however concentration of some components considerably differ, and also the maintenance of a bornilatsetat and beorneol in winter oil both summer and autumn. In winter oil the maintenance of a bornilatsetat makes less than 30%, but the maintenance of a borneol age to 6,8%. If to assume that process of biosynthesis of terpenoid during the winter period proceeds much more slowly, than during the summer period, existence of the raised contents borneolamozht to be connected with that at the beginning is formed borneol, etirifitsiruyushchiysya in bornilatsetat, or bornilatsetat is exposed to hydrolytic splitting to a borneol and acetic acid eventually. Winter essential oil has to contain the increased amount of acetic acid which almost completely defines acid number of oil in the second case. Really, in summer essential oil of a fir Siberian the acid number defined on OST 13-221-86 makes 0,32, and the acid number of winter essential oil was 2,34. It testifies that the raised maintenance of a borneol in winter oil is connected with hydrolytic splitting of a bornilatsetat to a borneol and acetic acid.
Thus, the composition of winter essential oil of a fir Siberian differs from that during the summer and autumn periods a little, especially it is noticeable by the maintenance of a bornilatsetat and borneol. Besides, winter essential fir oil contains a large number of a hamazulen - d 1,4% of whole oil. At the same time the content of essential oil in wood greens in winter and autumn time almost completely coincide - 3,98 and 3,78% that is much less. Than during the summer period - 5,4%.
The distillation method with water vapor has studied process of release of essential oil of pad of fir Siberian. The essential oil emitted during 26 h with exit of 5,40% is provided by 30 components with the contents more than 0,1%. The method of hromato-mass-spectrometry has identified all main components of the received oil.
The method of hromato-mass-spectrometry has investigated component composition of essential oil of needles of pine ordinary, collected in September. It is shown that the content of monoterpenes makes no more than 50% and the composition of oil changes in process of its allocation: the maintenance of the easily flying decreases, and the maintenance of the hardly flying increases otgonka eventually.
The method of hromato-mass-spectrometry has investigated component composition of essential oil of needles of larch Siberian, collected in September. It is shown that essential oil contains no more than 59% of monoterpenes, and the structure significantly changes its allocations in the conditions of hydrodistillation eventually.